steve biko quotes

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K5tMA3bkXmA
we see a completely non racial society we don’t believe for instance in the so-called guarantees for minority rights because guaranteeing minority rights implies but a mission of portions of the community on a race basis we believe that in our country there shall be no minority they shall be no majorities are just the people and those people will have the same status before the law and they will have the same play to arise before the law so in a sense it will be a completely non grey non resell egalitarian society all the vast number of blacks after all their experiences able to live their life without giving vent to feelings of revenge awe of the Vanguard political movement which brings about change to educate people’s outlooks I mean in the same way that blacks have never lived in a socialist economic system they were relieved to learn to live in one in the same way that they have always lived in a racially divided society they were to learn to live in a normal society in the first interview recorded in South Africa before his detention Steve Biko himself talks about the development of the Black Consciousness movement and his vision of a future South Africa the first part of the original interview was cut off the interviewer first asks Pico what black consciousness is Beco replies black consciousness is a political cultural philosophy employed by blacks in South Africa in an effort to shake off shackles of mental oppression and to reinstate the essential humanity and pride of blacks it was first devised by groups like Sasso the South African students organization and the VPC the black people’s convention in 1967-68 and has since filtered through to other organizations operating at various levels here the interview picks up with Biko’s voice now the history of it starts off the 1963-64 did you remember it era there were many era in this country which stemmed from underground activity 5pc by a and C and this led to some kind of political emasculation of the black population especially with the result that there was no participation by blacks in the articulation of their own aspirations the whole opposition to what the government was doing to blacks came in fact in fact from white organizations mainly student groups like nooses the Liberal Party the Progressive Party and blacks were articulating any sense when far few by comparison to the olden days and they were dispersed amongst these potential organizations now when I came to versity which was sometime in 1936 in my own analysis and that of my friends there was some kind of anomaly in the situation where whites were in fact the main participants in our oppression and at the same time the main participants in the opposition to that oppression it implies therefore that at no stage in this country where blacks throwing in their lot in the shift of political opinion and they are in averse to to the control by whites in what we called totality of white power at a time so we argued that any changes which are to come can only come as a result of a program worked out by a black people and for black people to be able to work out a program they need to defeat the main element in politics which are working against them and this was a psychological feeling of inferiority which was deliberately cultivated by the system so equally to the whites in order to be able to listen to blacks needed to defeat the one problem which they had which were wrong superiority now the only way to come about this of course was to look a new at the black man in terms of what it is in him that is lending him to denigration so easily so first of all we said of black students we could not participate in moderation organizations which were by far fight organizations because in this country there is an overwhelming number of white students at university secondly these organizations were concentrating mainly on problems which we are fetching the white student community and thirdly of course when he came to pregger questions they were far more articulate than the average black students because of their superior training and because of their our numbers they could advert us on any one issue which meant that nooses as an evaluation gave political opinions which were largely affected by the whiteness of that particular evaluation so they insist eh we started forming what you now call salsa the South African students organization which are firmly based on Black Consciousness the essence of which was for the black man to elevate his own position by positively looking at those very systems that make him distinctively a man in society first of all we were of the view that this particular country is almost like a an island of Europe in Africa if you go throughout the whole of Africa you do find aspects of African life which are culturally elevated throughout the continent but in this particular country somehow any visitor who come here tends to be made to believe over words that he is a Europe he never sees blacks except in a subservient role and this is all because of the cultural dominance of the particular group which is now in power to what extent have you been successful well we’ve been successful to the extent that we have diminished the element of fear in the minds of black people in the periods in our 63 64 256 black people were terribly scared of involvement politics the university we are putting out no use for leadership to the black people because everybody found it more comfortable to lose yourself in a particular profession to make money but since those days black students have seen their own doing primarily to prepare them for leadership roles in the various possible black community and through our political articulation of the aspirations of the black people many black people have come to appreciate in fact they need to stand up and be counted against the system there is far more political talk now far more liberal debate and far more condemnation of the system from the average black people that they have ever businesses possibly 1916 before I am referring here to the whole oppressive education system that the students are talking about and after complaining about this for lists in fact the government wants to further entrench what the students are protesting about that bringing in police and Saracens and dogs and almost soldiers so to speak now the response of the students there was in terms of their pride they were not prepared to the countdown even at the point of a gun and hence what happened happens suddenly we were killed and this trials just continued and continued because at no stage where the young students know for that matter as some say their parents prepared to be scared everybody saw this as a deliberate act of oppressive measures you know to try and count down the black messes and everybody was determined equally to say to the police to say to the government we shall not be scared you know by a police by your dogs and by your soldiers now this is the kind of in a lack of fear when it’s talking about which I see as a very important determinant in already galaktion sense loss through something like for humans young max we’re killin a feeling for lunch enough food and just think that this will not be a deterrent no I think it has been a very useful weapon in working the young and old I mean before then there was obviously difference in the outlook of the old generation to the younger generation the younger generation was moving too fast for the old generation the old generation was torn between bundles and politics on the one side over the l├ęgion seas which were not progressive allegiances you know to groups like Al CPAC without any regard to action and those are simply too scared to move you might condemn talk to some leadership in together yes of course we condemn one of 10 leaders even the best of them related yeah don’t just say key words on that well our attitude here that you cannot in perceiving the aspirations of black people operate from a platform which is meant for the oppression of the black people now we see all these so-called punishment platforms as being deliberate creations by the nationalist government to contain the political aspiration of the black people and to give them to do political platforms to direct the attention to man like bathtub utility matanzima and warfare and so on are all participants in the white man’s game of holding the aspirations of the black people now we do not feel it is possible in any way to turn such a platform to useful work we believe the first principle step by any black political leader is to destroy the platform and destroy it and in without giving it any form of respectability so once you step in it once they participate in it whether you and party or the opposition you are in fact giving sensitive to it you are given respectability to it so in a sense people like ketchup agility like my times man and like mango participants in a white man’s game and their participants at the expense of the black man and they are leading black people to a divided struggle to speak as image to speaker courses to speak at face value which is a completely new feature in political life of black people in this country we still get one combined polls directing ourselves a common enemy and we reject anyone who wishes to destroy that unity yeah we are as I was saying of the view that we should operate as one United hole towards attainment of an egalitarian society for the whole of hezonia and therefore any entrenchment of tribalistic realistic or any form of sectional outlooks is abhorred by us we hate it and recently destroyed and it is for this reason therefore that we cannot see any form of correlation with any of the pundits and leaders even their so-called best of them like that which are easy because they destroy themselves by virtue of the kind of argument that one and put up so the government of course is you know says that all this unrest truly is due to communist agitation no you communists we have a no means for Venus neither do I believe for a moment that the address is due to community agitation I do know for a fact that there has been participation it would appear any way from science by a lot of people in the unrest but the primary reason the a simple lack of patience by the young folk with a government which is refusing to change refusing to change in the educational sphere which is where the redirecting themselves and also refusing to change in a broader political situation now when did the unsub start with the protests they were talking about Africans are talking about fund education and their mental ed but the government responded in a high-handed fashion assuming other what is done that they are in a situation of total power but here for once they met a student group which was not prepared to be thrown around all the time they decided to flex their muscle and of course the whole kind of responded simply because just to say that they are lessons to be gleaned from this whole alga situation of last year and the first instance I think blacks have flexed their muscle a bit and they now know the degree of dedication that they can find amongst their own numbers when they are called to action and they now know the kind of response they will get from the various segments of the population if they use the odious and so on and the second lesson of course is the response from the governments and the white population at large the government responded in one way and the white population also in another way one doesn’t want to get into details here but you know everything is newspapers you get some kind of idea of the extent of fear that was prevalent in white society at a particular time especially just after the first onslaught in Soweto where there was a real fear the community throughout the country nobody knew just where something would happen next so how will these letters express themselves in future I’m of the view that any recurrence of disturbances of that nature can only result in more careful planning and better calculation thereby achieving the desired results to a greater extent than the spontaneous situation we had last year for instance and you believe that this means you will bring about a real change of the society I see this is only an expression one form of an expression of discontent inside I’m of the view that the whole change process is going to be infatuated one in this country it depends entirely on the degree to which the Nationalist government is preferred to hold on to power and my own analysis is that they are wanting to hold on to power and fight with our backs to the wall now conflict could only be avoidable if they were prepared to avoid it those were at the seeking end that is those one justice want an egalitarian society can only pursue their aspirations according to the resistance offered by the opposition and if the opposition is prepared to fight the best of the war conflict can be avoidable now we as TPC I am a member of the Black Consciousness movement I was a member of DPC before our band and now I have been I’m told appointed as on our returns of a BBC now the line that BBC adopts is to explore as much as possible nonviolent means within within the country and that is why we exist for there are people and are many people who have despaired of the efficacy of non-violence and an effort we have the overview that the present Nationalist government can only be unseated by people operating a military wing I don’t know if this is the final answer I think in the end there is going to be a totality of effect of a number of change agencies in operating in South Africa I personally would like to see less groups I’d like to see groups like ALC PVC and a Black Consciousness movement deciding to form one liberation group and it is only I think when black people are so dedicated and so United in their course that we can affect the greater a lot and whether this is going to be through the form of conflict or not will be dictated by the future I don’t believe for a moment that we are going to willingly drop our belief in the non-violence stance f of now but I can’t predict what will happen in the future you have much of that can predict for the enemies going to do in the future can you guess at all at the number of years the change motek that’s a very difficult inside they don’t want to get involved in that kind of some people say five years of a pea tinea I think we are not at the stage yet where it is possible to fix that precise timetable they speak of an egalitarian society do you mean a socialist one yes I think they there is no running away from the fact now that in South Africa there is such an inner distribution of wealth that any form of political freedom which does not pass the distribution of proper distribution of wealth for the meaningless the whites have locked up within a small minority of themselves the greater proportion of the country’s wealth and if we have a mere change of face of those in guarding positions what is likely to happen is that black people will continue to be poor and you will get a few blacks filtering through into the so-called blue jersey and our society will be run almost as of yesterday so that for meaningful change to occur there needs to be an attempt at reorganizing the whole economic petaline and economic policies within this particular country PPC believes in a judicious blending of private enterprise which is highly diminished and state participation in industry and commerce especially on industries like mining courage de menthe asbestos and so on like forestry and of course complete ownership of land now in that kind of judicious blending of the two systems we hope to arrive at a more equitable distribution of work but you see the country clearly you see a country in which black and white can live amicably on equal terms together very correct we will see a completely non racial society we don’t believe for instance in the so-called currencies for minority rights because guaranteeing minority rights implies whatever mission of portions of the community on erased papers we believe that in our country we know minority the Sorvino my degrees are just with people and those people will have the same status before the law and they will have the same plate you are right before the law so in essence it will be a completely non gray non-racial egalitarian society all the vast number of blacks after all their experiences here able to live their life without giving vent to feelings of revenge so easily because the beauty of the Vanguard political movement which brings about change to educate people’s outlooks I mean in the same way that Platts have never lived in a socialist economic system they believe to learn to live in one in the same way that they have always lived in a racially divided society that what you learn to live in a normal society there were many things to learn and all these must be brought to them and explained to the people by the vanguard movement which is leading the revolution so that I’ve got no doubt in my mind that people and I know people in terms of my own background where I stayed I’m not necessarily revengeful you know there is a district in Outlook now the black man has got no ill intentions for the white man the black man is only in the sense that the white man to the extent that you are too entrenched himself in a position of power to exploit the black man but beyond that nothing more and we don’t need any artificial majorities any official laws to entrance ourselves in power because we believe once we come into power our sheer numbers will maintain up there so we do not have the same fear that the minority white government has been having all along which has led to this many laws you know trying to keep them there as you know the main argument of the government is always the black man just isn’t civilizational level as present the pool is full weights political yeah I know do you think of a one-man one-vote franchise if we do things entirely entirely one man one vote no purification whatsoever except the normal ones which you find throughout the world don’t you think that the black man in fact is perfectly well label the Blackman is well able and the white man knows it I mean the irony of that kind of situation is that when they work government negotiates so-called independence for the so forth transcribe they don’t speak in terms of a qualified person and the trans guy every a chest iron looks easy and you’ll get white nationalist politicians arguing that this is a system which is going to work for the childcare but somehow when it comes to the broader country the black may not go it because they don’t understand the sophisticated you know economic capsules out here they understand nothing so they they need to operate at the difference from level knowledge all noises it is meant to entrench the white man in the position immune to violence of today will do away with it all together there will be a completion Andre show of franchise and the black and white in votes every devious in our society well this is so fascinating is an outsider visitor I can only say that my feeling is that this is bound to be a very long and probably very bloody irreverent they hear that possibility yeah that possibility but as I said early on it will be dictated you know purely by the response of the Nationalist Party if they’ve been able to see that in Rhodesia Smith must negotiate with the leaders of the black people every PR comet is Casa I think conflict is unavoidable given the predictable response from the present system and this conflict can be pretty the generalized and extensive and protracted my worst fears are that working on the present analysis conflict can only be on a generalized basis between black and white we don’t have sufficient groups who can form coalition with black players groups from the white at the present moment but the more such groups come up the better to minimize that conflict

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6kHOc4RI4xs
first part of the original interview was cut off the interviewer first asked spika what black consciousness is biko replies black consciousness is a political cultural philosophy employed by blacks in south africa and an effort to shake off shackles of mental oppression and to reinstate the essential humanity and pride of blacks it was first devised by groups like sasso the south african students organization and the bpc the black people’s convention in 1967 68 and has since filtered through to other organizations operating at various levels here the interview picks up with biko’s voice now the history of it starts off after 1963-64 if you remember this era there were many arrests in this country which stemmed from underground activity by pac by anc and this led to some kind of political emasculation of the black population especially with the result that there was no participation by blacks in the articulation of their own aspirations the whole opposition to what the government was doing to blacks came in effect in fact from white organizations mainly student groups like users the liberal party the progressive party and blacks were articulating any sense were far few by comparison to the olden days and they were dispersed amongst these particular organizations now when i came to university which was sometime in 1966 in my own analysis and that of my friends there was some kind of anomaly in this situation where whites were in fact the main participants in our oppression and at the same time the main participants in the opposition to that oppression it implies therefore that at no stage in this country where blacks throwing in their lot in the shift of political opinion the arena was totally controlled by whites in what we called totality of white power at the time so we argued that any changes which are to come can only come as a result of a program worked out by black people and for black people to be able to work out a program they need to defeat the one main element in politics which was working against them and this was the psychological feeling of inferiority which was deliberately cultivated by the system so equally to the whites in order to be able to listen to blacks needed to defeat the one problem which they had which was one superiority now the only way to come about this of course was to look anew at the black man in terms of what it is in him that is lending him to denigration so easily so first of all we said as black students we could not participate in multi-racial organizations which were by far white organizations because in this country there is an overwhelming number of white students at university secondly these organizations were concentrating mainly on problems which were affecting the white student community and thirdly of course when it came to political questions they were far more articulate than the average black student because of their superior training and because of their numbers they could avoid us on any one issue which meant that users as an organization gave political opinions which were largely affected by the whiteness of that particular organization so then in 68 we started forming what is now called sasso the south african students organization which was firmly based on black consciousness the essence of which was for the black man to elevate his own position by positively looking at those value systems that make him distinctively a man in society first of all we were of the view that this particular country is almost like a an island of europe in africa if you go throughout the whole of africa you do find aspects of african life which are culturally elevated throughout the continent but in this particular country somehow any visitor who comes here tends to be made to believe almost that he is in europe he never sees blacks except in a subservient role and this is all because of the cultural dominance of the particular group which is now in power to what extent have you been successful well we’ve been successful to the extent that we have diminished the element of fear in the minds of black people uh in the period you know 63 64 65 66 black people were terribly scared of involvement in politics the universities were putting out no useful leadership to the black people because everybody found it more comfortable to lose himself in a particular profession to make money but since those days black students have seen their role as being primarily to prepare themselves for leadership roles in the various facets of the black community and through our political articulation of the aspirations of the black people many black people have come to appreciate in fact they need to stand up and be counted against the system there is far more political talk now far more political debate and far more condemnation of the system from average black people than they have ever been since possibly 1960 and before i’m referring here to the whole oppressive education system that the students were talking about and after complaining about this police in fact the government wants to further entrench what the students are protesting about by bringing in police and citizens and dogs and almost soldiers so to speak now the response of the students then was in terms of their pride they were not prepared to be cowed down even at the point of a gun and hence what happened happened some people were killed and this riots just continued and continued because at no stage where the young students know for that matter at some stage their parents prepared to be scared everybody saw this as a deliberate act of oppressive measures you know to try and count down the black masses and everybody was determined equally to say to the police to say to the government we shall not be scared you know by your police by your dogs and by your soldiers now this is the kind of you know lack of fear one is talking about which i see is a very important uh determinant in political action since last june something like 400 young blacks were killed 299 actually 199 and you think that this will not be a deterrent no i think it has been a very useful uh weapon in wording the young and the old i mean before then there was obviously a difference in the outlook of the old generation to the younger generation the younger generation was moving too fast for the old generation the old generation was torn between bundles and politics on the one side old allegiances which were not progressive allegiances you know to groups like anc pac without any result in action and there were those are simply too scared to move you condemn uh leadership all together yes of course we condemn vanessa and leaders uh even the best of them like that yeah well just say a few words on that well our attitude here is that you cannot in pursuing the aspirations of black people operate from a platform which is meant for the oppression of the black people now we see all these so-called bundesliga platforms as being deliberate creations by the nationalist government to contain the political aspiration of the black people and to give them pseudo-political platforms to direct their attention to now men like gacha butylezi matanzima mangope and so on are all participants in the white men’s game of holding the aspirations of the black people now we do not feel it is possible in any way to turn such a platform to useful work we believe the first principal step by any black political leader is to destroy such a platform and destroy it and without giving it any form of respectability so once you step in it once you participate in it whether you’re in the governing party or the opposition you are in fact giving sanctity to it you are giving respectability to it so in a sense people like katja boutilasi like matanzama and like mangope are participants in a white men’s game and they are participants at the expense of the black men and they are leading black people to a divided struggle to speak as zulus to speak as torsos to speak it as parties which is a completely new feature in in political life of black people in this country we speak as one combined whole directing ourselves to a common enemy and we reject anyone who wishes to destroy that unity yeah we are as i was saying of the view that we should operate as one united whole towards attainment of an egalitarian society for the whole of asania and therefore any entrenchment of tribalistic racialistic or any form of sexual outlooks is abhorred by us we hate it and we seek to destroy it and it is for this reason therefore that we cannot see any form of coalition with any of the palestinian leaders even the so-called best of them like gachapo terezi because they destroy themselves by virtue of the kind of argument that one has put up so the government of course as you know says that all this unrest really is due to communist agitation are you a communist we have by no means communists neither do i believe for a moment that the unrest is due to communist agitation i do know for a fact that there has been participation it would appear anyway from science by a lot of people there are lessons to to be gleaned from this whole unrest situation of last year in the first instance i think blacks have flexed their muscle a bit and they now know the degree of dedication that they can find amongst their own members when they are called to action and they now know the kind of response they will get from the various segments of the population the youth the oldies and so on and the second lesson of course is the response from the government and the wild population at large the government responded in one way and the white population also in another way one doesn’t want to get into details here but you know reading these newspapers you get some kind of idea of the extent of fear that was prevalent in white society at a particular time especially just after the first onslaught in soweto where there was a real fear throughout the community throughout the country nobody knew just where something would happen next so how will these lessons express themselves in future um i’m of the view that any recurrence of disturbances of that nature can only result in more careful planning and better calculation [Music] thereby achieving the desired results to a greater extent than the spontaneous situation we had last year for instance and you believe that by these means you will bring about a real change of the society i see this as only an expression one form of an expression of discontent inside i’m of the view that the whole change process is going to be a protracted one in this country it depends entirely on the degree to which the nationalist government is prepared to hold on to power and my own analysis is that they are wanting to hold on to power and fight with their backs to the world now conflict could only be avoidable if they were prepared to avoid it those who are at the seeking end that is those who want justice to want an egalitarian society [Music] can only pursue their aspirations according to the resistance offered by the opposition and if the opposition is prepared to find their best to the world conflict can be avoidable now we as the ppci i’m a member of the black conscious movement i was a member of bpc before i was banned and now i have been i’m told appointed as honorary president of bbc now the line that bbc adopts is to explore as much as possible uh non-violent means within within the country and that is why we exist but there are people and there are many people who have despaired of the efficacy of non-violence as a method they have the of the view that the present nationalist government can only be unseated by people operating a military wing i don’t know if this is the final answer i think in the end there is going to be a totality of effect of a number of change agencies in operating in south africa i personally would like to see less groups i’d like to see groups like anc pac and the black consciousness movement deciding to form one liberation group and it is only i think when black people are so dedicated and so united in their course that we can affect the greatest results and whether this is going to be through the form of conflict or not will be dedicated by the future i don’t believe for a moment that we are going to willingly drop our belief in the non-violence stance as of now but i can’t predict what will happen in the future in as much as i can predict what the enemy is going to do in the future can you guess at all at the number of years the change might take that’s a very difficult exercise i don’t want to get involved in that kind of exercise some people say five years other than 10 years i think we are not at a stage yet where it is possible to fix a precise timetable let me speak up in egalitarian society do you mean the socialist one yes i think there is no running away from the fact now that in south africa there is such an ill distribution of wealth that any form of political freedom which does not touch on the distribution of uh proper distribution of wealth will be meaningless the whites have locked up within a small minority of themselves the greater proportion of the country’s world and if we have a mere change of faith of those in governing positions what is likely to happen is that black people will continue to be poor and you will get a few blacks filtering through into the so-called bourgeoisie and our society will be run almost as of yesterday so that for meaningful change to occur there needs to be an attempt at reorganizing the whole economic pattern and economic policies within this particular country [Music] bbc believes in a judicious blending of a private enterprise which is highly diminished and state participation in industry and commerce especially on industries like mining gold diamond asbestos and so on like forestry and of course complete ownership of land now in that kind of judicious blending of the two systems we hope to arrive at a more equitable distribution of wealth but you see a country sorry clearly you see a country in which black and white can live amicably on equal terms together that is correct we see a completely non-racial society we don’t believe for instance in the so-called guarantees for minority rights because guaranteeing minority rights implies the recognition of portions of the community on a race basis we believe that in our country there shall be no minority there shall be no majorities are just the people and those people will have uh the same status before the law and they will have the same political rights before the law so in a sense it would be a completely non non-racial egalitarian society with all the vast number of blacks after all their experiences be able uh to live their life without giving vent to feelings of revenge of yesterday we believe it is the duty of the vanguard political movement which brings about change to educate people’s outlooks i mean in the same way that blacks have never lived in a socialist economic system they’re going to live to learn to live in one in the same way that they’ve always lived in a racially divided society they’ve got to learn to live in a non-rigid society there were many things to learn and all these must be brought to them and explained to the people by the vanguard movement which is leading the revolution so that i’ve got no doubt in my mind that people and i know people in terms of my own background where i stay are not necessarily revengeful you know are they sadistic in outlook now the black man has got no ill intentions for the white man the black man is only in sense that the white man to the extent that he wants to entrench himself in a position of power to exploit the black man but beyond that nothing more and we don’t need any artificial majorities any artificial laws to entrance ourselves in power because we believe once we come into power our shared numbers will uh maintain us there so we do not have the same fear that the minority white government has been having all along which has led to these many laws you know designed to keep them there as you know the main argument of the government is always the black man just isn’t uh on a civilizational level at present to pull his full weight politically yeah do you think of a one-man one-vote franchise yes we do think so entirely entirely one man one vote no qualification whatsoever except the normal ones which you find throughout the world don’t you think that the black man in fact is perfectly well able uh the black man is well able and the white man knows it i mean the irony of that kind of situation is that when the white government negotiates so-called independence for the so-called trans sky they don’t speak in terms of a qualified franchise and they transcribe every transgender vote you see and you’ll get white nationalist politicians arguing that this is a system which is going to work for the trans guy but somehow when it comes to the broader country the blacks may not vote because they don’t understand the sophisticated you know economic patterns out here they understand nothing so they they need to operate at a different sort of level now this is all nonsense it is meant to entrench the white man in the position initially finds themselves today we will do away with it all together there will be a completely non-racial franchise and the black and white will vote as individuals in our society well this is all fascinating as an outsider visitor i can only say that my feeling is that this is bound to be a very long and probably very bloody road there is that possibility there is a possibility but as i said earlier on it will be dictated you know uh purely by the response of the national experience if they’ve been able to see that in rhodesia smith must negotiate with the leaders of the black people in religion [Music] yes uh i think conflict is unavoidable given the predictable response from the present system and this conflict can be pretty generalized and extensive and protracted my worst fear is that working on the present analysis conflict can only be a generalized basis between black and white we don’t have sufficient groups who can form coalition with black studies groups from the whites at the present moment but the more such groups come up the better to minimize that conflict thank you very much the preceding interview with steve bico was recorded in south africa before his detention there this past august he died in police custody september 12th